[書摘] 改變神經肌肉的控制 – 讓肌肉更敏捷

在上一篇"核心控制與穩定肌群的重要性“的文章談到,有人問到該怎麼進行訓練呢?強化核心肌群的耐力嗎?根據跑步的姿勢來進行阻力訓練嗎?書中談到的「Changing Neuromuscular Control: Making Muscles Smarter」,改變神經肌肉的控制,讓肌肉更加的敏銳,以讓你在進行動作時,身體可以在極短的時間內維持穩定。

在《Anatomy for Runners》書上說到:

We know that running demands we generate large force. And we need to make smarter decisions in our neuromuscular control to avoid instability. Muscular control is your first and best line of defense.  

However, we often forget that muscles only turn on and off in very precise amounts when told to by the nervous system. The nervous system allows you to adjust your force.

在跑步的過程中,我們需要讓神經肌肉控制中心來執行敏銳的決定,以避免身體失去平衡。而別忘了,肌肉只有「開」或「關」,但我們的神經系統確可以精密的控制肌肉,予許你來調整力道。

It’s the reason you can catch an egg without crushing it. You don’t go from completely relaxed to full contraction each and every time you move, so the brain’s ability to coordinate and stabilize the muscular force results in a state of dynamic stability.

為什麼你拿雞蛋時,雞蛋不會被你捏碎,因為大腦有協調與穩定肌肉的能力,最後產生出動態平衡的狀況。

書中有提到,決定我們關節位置與身體定位是綜合了三個主要資訊來源「前庭系統(Vestibular System)」、「視覺(Visual)」與「本體感覺(Somatosensory)」:

■ Vestibular System (inner ear) – If you are standing still, inner ear fluid is still. If you turn your head suddenly, the inner ear fluid swirls. This information goes to your brain to help determine acceleration and change in position. 

■ Visual – We use your eyes to orient our head and tunk and let us know which way is “up."

■ Somatosensory – You “feel" the ground. You have sensory receptors in your skin that allow you to feel joint position, light and deep pressure, vibration, heat, cold, etc. This sensation goes a long way to improve your tactile feedback to hep you remain stable. 

這三個來源相互的交談與微調來控制你身體的位置與定位,當這三者的竟見都一致同意時,大腦在取得明確的訊號下,便可以做出合適的決定。但若他們意見分歧時,大腦就會感到困惑了。比方說,若你停下,你的眼睛跟本體感覺告訴你「我已經停下來了」,但你的內耳液(Inner Ear fluid)依然打旋(Swirl)著 – “不同意" ,你就會感覺到頭暈(Dizzy)。

但為何你閉上眼睛時,單腳平衡就變的更加困難呢?大部份的人都是以視覺為主,高度依賴眼睛來發覺他們的空間中的位置,但問題在於視覺的反應緩慢(Slow)

You need to see information process it in the visual part of your brain, then send a signal to the part of your brain that controls motion to make a correction.

(先從大腦中負責視覺的區域處理資訊之後,再將資訊傳送到大腦負種動作的區域來進行控制。)

但本體感覺神經(Somatosensory Nerve)比起其它型態的神經將資訊傳達到身體的速度更快,接收到感覺器的訊號時可 直接傳給運動單元進行動作,達到更為迅速的"微調"

Somatosensory nerves are hardwired to transfer infomration through the body faster than any other nerve type. There is a direct rely between the sensory and motor reflexes both inside and outside brain. Fast info in equals fast info out. 

This results in rapid “microcorrections" of position.

看個例子,像是滑雪、衝浪、滑板的人,他們藉由腳上踩的板子將資訊立即的傳達給身體,身體可以在短時間內進行姿勢的調整,並在每一次的訓練中,不斷的進化身體的感覺非改善本體感覺神經系統。

If you look at skiers, surfers, skateboarders, white water padllers – they all have something in common – they need to make positional corrections very quickly 0 faster than they can see and adjust.

Each and every time they practice their sport they are refining their position sense by “feeling" where the body is. They consistently train and improve their somatosensory system.

但你要如何訓練本體感覺神經系統呢?

Correcting imbalances is all about moving smarter, not stronger. You should never attempt high intensity strength and plyometric exercise until you have mastered specific stabilization of the parts.

若直白一點的翻譯上面這段話就是「不要還不會走就想要飛」,在還沒能熟悉掌握動作的穩定度前,不應該嘗試高強度肌力或是增強式的訓練。為什麼呢?

Unstable levers cannot tolerate high loads. If you can’t generate specific force from the right muscles to stabilize against there loads, the body compensates. 

(不平衡的槓桿是無法承受高負載的。若你沒辦法由正確的肌肉來產生特定的力量來抵抗負重時,身體就會產生代償。)

Athletes develop poor movement stills because they don’t know any better. Simple adding more volume, more intensity, and more challenge to runners with poor local control is about as effective as drunk driving

(運動員會發展出不佳的動作是因為他們不知道有更好的方式。所以在不良的身體控制狀況下,不斷的提升訓練量、強度與挑戰,這種方式就像是酒駕。)

至於訓練方式,可以參考《Anatomy for Runners》書上的後半段,有機會山姆伯候再來提囉,但書上講的觀念真得淺顯易懂,是本不錯的書。

Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...
山姆伯伯
運動訓練相關文章分享、運動訓練產品經銷及零售、運動訓練講座課程。目前不提供線上問題咨詢、個人代購服務。...(完整介紹)

Comments are closed.