如何設計一個核心訓練的菜單?

先前談到了「何謂核心肌群」、「Drawing-In (縮緊腹部)」及「Bracing (繃緊)」,然而要如何設計一個核心訓練的菜單呢?在「NASM Essential Personal Fitness Training」書上接著有提到,以NASM Optimum Performance Training(OPT)的模型,循序的設計訓練的內容。

直接來看書上的說明:

■ 設計一個核心訓練的計劃(Designing a Core Training Program )

The goal of core training is to develop optimal levels of neuromuscular efficiency, stability (intervertebral and lumbopelvic stability—local and global stabilization systems), and functional strength (movement system).

(核心訓練的目標是去發展肌肉神經效率、穩定度(椎間盤及腰椎骨盆的穩定度-局部及全面的穩定系統)及功能的肌力(動作系統)的最佳水平。)

Neural adaptations become the focus of the program instead of striving for absolute strength gains. Increasing proprioceptive demand by using a multisensory environment and using multiple modalities (balls, bands, and balance equipment) is more important than increasing the external resistance. The quality of movement should be stressed over quantity, and the focus of the program should be on function.

(訓練的計劃是將焦點放在神經適應而非持續的增加絕對肌力。藉由使用多感官環境及方式(球、彈力帶、平衡器材)來增加本體感受的需求比起增加外部的阻力來的更為重要。跟次數來比,應該更強調動作的品質,並且著重在功能上。)

核心訓練計劃的設計,順序是非常關鍵的,必須了解本身或客戶的狀況,在能完成每階段的動作,不造成代償的狀況下,才繼續往下一階段進行訓練:

1. Intervertebral stability (椎間盤穩定度)
2. Lumbopelvic stability (腰椎骨盆穩定度)
3. Movement efficiency (動作效率)

而書上以NASM提出的OPT模型(穩定度、肌力及爆發力)來進行說明,以有系統而循序漸進的方式來進行設計與訓練,一共五個階段(Phase)。

一. 穩定度(Stabilization)

In core-stabilization training (Phase 1), exercises involve little motion through the spine and pelvis. These exercises are designed to improve neuromuscular efficiency and intervertebral stability, focusing on drawing-in and then bracing during the exercises . The client would traditionally spend 4 weeks at this level of core training.

(在第一階段核心穩定度的訓練,動作上是從脊椎與骨盆之間進行小範圍的移動,改善神經肌肉的效率及 椎間盤的穩定度,將焦點放在動作時的「Drawing-in」及「Bracing」。一般來說,這個階段的訓練需要花4個星期的時間。)

動作的範例有.. [Marching]、[Floor bridge(橋式)]、[Floor prone cobra]及[Prone iso-ab (Plank(棒式)]。

二. 核心力量(Core Strength)

In core-strength training (Phases 2, 3, and 4), the exercises involve more dynamic eccentric and concentric movements of the spine throughout a full range of motion while clients perform the activation techniques learned in core-stabilization training (drawing-in and bracing).

(客戶已經可以掌握核心穩定度(Drawing-in及Bracing)的技巧之後,接下來進譬核心力量的訓練,以全活動範圍的動作並引入更動態的脊椎離心與向心的動作。)

The specificity, speed, and neural demands are also progressed in this level. Clients would traditionally spend 4 weeks at this level of core training. These exercises are designed to improve dynamic stabilization, concentric strength (force production), eccentric strength (force reduction), and neuromuscular efficiency of the entire kinetic chain.

( 在這個階段中,動作細膩度、速度及肌肉神經的要求也會提高。客戶會花4週的時間在這個階段的訓練中。而這階段動作的設計會改善束整體動力鍊的動態穩定度、向心肌力(發力)、離心肌力(力量縮減)及肌肉神經的效率。)

動作的範例有..[Ball Crunch]、 [Back Extensions]、[Reverse Crunch]及[Cable Rotations]。

三. 核心爆發力(Core Power)

In core-power training (Phase 5), exercises are designed to improve the rate of force production of the core musculature. These forms of exercise prepare an individual to dynamically stabilize and generate force at more functionally applicable speeds.

(這個階段動作的設計是用來提升核心肌肉發力的速度。)

動作的範例有..[Rotation Chest Pass]、[Ball medicine ball pullover throw]、[Front medicine ball oblique throw]及[Soccer throw]。

動作上,書上都有圖文介紹,山姆伯伯只是上Youtube找了相似的動作。若你不了解動作的話,建議可以翻閱書籍,或是咨詢教練。而整個訓練的計劃,書上有提供以下的表格,大家可以參考一下囉。

先具備穩定度(Stabilization)的能力之中,再進行力量(Strength)的訓練,最後再加入爆發力(Power)的訓練。有人說,CrossFit不是有藥球丟球的動作,一般初學者也可以進行嗎?這個動作是複合式的動作,動作的學習過程也是從穩定度、深蹲慢慢開始進行,不會是一開始就直接進到丟球的姿勢,以下有一段教學的示範囉。

圖片來源:NASM Research Institute Puts OPT to the Test

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