[書摘] 肌肉動力學(Muscle Dynamics)

在CrossFit社群知名的物理治療師Kelly Starrett出了新書「Becoming a Supple Leopard(變成一隻柔軟的豹)」,山姆伯伯最好奇的就是他提的「肌肉動力學(Muscle Dynamics)」,在他許多的影片中會看到他利用彈力帶搭配伸展動作來進行動作矯正,但目的為何?直接來看書上第212頁,他怎麼說。

Kelly Starrett在診斷患者或是運動員,會依序的進行靈活度的確認,清單如下:

1. Joint mechanics
2. Sliding-surface dysfunction
3. Muscle dynamics

在修正運動控制- 位置(Motor Control-Position)或動作誤差-關節囊限制(Movement Error-Clear)及回復滑動面太緊的組織,使其回復其正常的活動範圍,這過程中沒做任何伸展事情。這伸展的事情就放在最後「肌肉動力學」的步驟上。

肌肉動力學使用一些活動技術,看起來跟傳統的伸展非常的像!讓作者說清楚:

Muscle dynamics is not stretching as I’ve classified it. We’re not just putting the tissue to end-range and hanging out for a while, hoping that something changes. Rather, we’re using an active model - applying tension at end-range – to help facilitate change in the tissue and restore some muscle contraction. 

(在他的分類上,肌肉動力學跟伸展不一樣。我們不止將組織推到最終範圍及維持一段時間,希望有些變化。然而,我們採取的是主動模式,在組織最終範圍時施加張力,有助於促進組織的變化和恢復一些肌肉的收縮能力。)

And, more important, we’re always biasing or emphasizing positions that look like the positions we’re trying to correct. If you’re restricted in the bottom of the squat, you want to mobilize in a position that looks like the bottom of the squat.

(此外,更為重要的是,我們傾向或強調在「位置」,使之動作的位置是我們試圖要矯正的位置。比方說,在進行深蹲時,下蹲受到限制,在矯正靈活度時,也會以相似於下蹲姿勢做為動作來進行處理。) 

(When possible, always mobilize in a shape that closely resembles the position you’re trying to change.)

The muscle dynamics system is how we lengthen muscles or increase range-of-motion for athletes who need to get into extreme positions, like dancers, gymnasts, and martial artists. )

(肌肉動力學系統是我們如何針對運動員的需要去伸展肌肉或是增加活動範圍,使用達到極端的位置,像是舞者、體操選手或是綜合格鬥家。)

Don’t confuse this with growing new muscle. I say this because I’ve seen people fall into the trap of thinking that they can grow new muscle by stretching. The fastest way to grow or lengthen muscle is to perform full-range loaded movements. If your hamstrings are “tight" for example, deadlifting and squatting will not only stimulate hamstring growth, but also build motor-control and strength at new end-ranges.

(伸展不會長出新肌肉。長肌肉或延長肌肉最快速的方式就是進行全活動範圍負重的動作。舉個例子,若你大腿後側很緊繃,硬舉及深蹲不僅刺激大腿後側肌肉的成長,也在新的活動範圍下建構了運動控制及肌力。)

When you restore range or function to the joint or tissue, you need to reflect that change back into your motor-control program. If you improve your overhead shoulder range-of-motion by 5 percent, and you use it in the gym, you will more than likely retain that range of motion. It’s not a mysterious process.

(當你關節或組織恢復其活動範圍或功能時,你需要將這個改變反映到運動控制的系統中。若肩膀過頭的活動範圍改善5%,當你將這個改善實際用於健身房的訓練中,你很有可能保留住這個新的活動範圍。這不是很難理解的過程。)

When muscles are working within limited ranges of motion they become functionally short. Consider an elite cyclist who spends half of his day on a bike. His ankles are locked in a neutral position and his hips are stuck in a closed position.

(當肌肉在有限的活動範圍內運作時,他們功能上會變短。一位精英自行車選手,他每天花一半的時間在自行車上。腳踝固定在一個自然的位置,而髖關節卡在一個閉鎖的位置。)

By the time he gets off his bike after a long ride, his muscle have adapted to that working position. This is where muscle dynamics and methods like contract and relax - forcing tissue to end-range, contracting the muscle, and then relaxing to get a little bit more range – fit into our paradigm of solving problem.

(在長時間騎程結束之後,他下了自行車,而他的肌肉已經適應成訓練時的狀態。這時候「肌肉動力學」的矯正方式就像是收縮及放鬆,強迫組織進到最終範圍,收縮肌肉,然後進行放鬆,以獲取更多一點的活動範圍。)

If you’re stuck in a car for two hours, undoing the sitting by spending some time at end-range hip extension (using the contract and relax model) to restore normal length to the tissue is the way to go. That doesn’t mean hanging out in a static position but actively oscillating in and out of end-range tension and using a band to approximate our hip into a good position.

(如果坐在車裡面2小時(髖關節一直呈現髖屈"Hip Flexion"狀態),花點時間在髖伸(Hip Extension)的最終範圍(進行收縮然後放鬆),來抵消坐時對組織的影響,以回復組織原本的正常長度。這並不是意思味處在一個靜止的位置,藉由彈力帶使其髖關節在一位良好的位置下,主動調動其最終範圍。)

My rule of thumb is to prioritize motor-control, joint capsule, and sliding surfaces before training, and to save some of the muscle dynamic end-range mobilization techniques for after training.  This way, you’re warmed up and your tissues are prepped for the mobility work. We hear athletes say that they are afraid of stretching before they work out, and that’s a reasonable fear. In fact, static end-range splits before you squat heavy in probably not a good idea.

(作者的經驗是在訓練前,優先處理運動控制、關節囊及滑動表面的問題,而解決肌肉動態最終範圍的活動度則是在訓練後。因為你已經暖好身、組織也準備好進行活動度的工作了。我們聽很多運動員在訓練前,恐懼進行伸展的程序,這是很合理的恐懼。事實上,在進行高負荷的深蹲前,進行靜態伸展可能不是個好主意。)

 

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