訓練結束後,蛋白質要補充多少呢?

運動後,蛋白質(或說大家比較常聽的乳清蛋白)的攝取要很多嗎?其實這跟你訓練的型態有關:「耐力訓練」或是「阻力訓練」。山姆伯伯將美國ESPN推薦書籍「The Athlete’s Guide to Recovery: Rest, Relax, and Restore for Peak Performance」這本書中第九章提到有關的資訊與大家來分享囉。

關於「The Athlete’s Guide to Recovery: Rest, Relax, and Restore for Peak Performance」這本書談論的內容,主要是「跑步」及「自行車」運動為主囉。

運動後的營養補充,不能只將焦點放在運動後的當下,而是全天候的飲食才對,所以我們先來看看每日飲食中應該注意到的重點,在書上的第80頁寫到「Daily Eating」:

Your best approach to recovery nutrition is , quite simply, to eat well all the time. A healthy diet, in Michael Pollan’s now-famous manifesto from In Defense of Food, is comprised of “food. Not too much. Mostly plants." A wide variety of brightly colored foods, mostly vegetables and fruits that, whenever possible, are organic and locally sourced, will provide you with most of what you need.

Prepackaged and processed foods – the bars, gels, and powdered drinks that tend to line the shelves of any athlete’s pantry – have their place, but it is a limited place and pertains to the time immediately preceding, during, and sometimes after exercise. Even then, real food is often the better option, depending on the individual’s constitution and the intensity and duration of exercise. 

For a useful book on healthy daily eating habits of athletes, see Adam Kelinson’s The Athlete’s Place : Real Food for High Performance(2009).

簡譯每日的飲食中以植物為主,選擇各式各樣顏色、當地生產的蔬菜水果,並盡可能選擇有機栽培的品種。而預先包裝處理好的食物,較適合於運動前、運動中及運動結束後來攝取。真食物還是較好的營養選擇。

書中談到的,還是以建議選擇「真食物(Real Food)」。在「10種對皮膚有害的食物」有談到「應該避免處理及包裝過的食物。換句話說,食物在經過處理之後,天然酵素(Enzymes)及營養會被破壞並且流失掉,高度食用這類的食品,在營養不足的情況下,這個狀況會表露於你的皮膚上。

因此,在日常的飲食中還是以未經過處理過的食物為主,天然酵素及營養成份都較高;而運動前/中/後,為了增加營養的吸收速度,所以選擇易吸收.高濃縮的能量或是營養包做為補充。

而營養的攝取要均衡,書上也做了說明:

Your diet should include a good balance of macronutrients (carbohydrates, protein, and fats). The precise proportion of each that works best depends on your constitution, sport, and activity level and must be determined individually. While we often get into a habit of eating the same thing day in and day out, and while it can be easy to have weekly schedule, variety ensures we get the most from our food.

Eating a well-rounded, natural diet will provide your body with the elements it needs to recover: carbohydrates to supply and replenish energy in the form of glycogen, protein to deliver amino acids to rebuild muscle fiber, and fats to insulate the body and carry vitamins to the cells.

簡譯在飲料中應該均衡攝取多量元素(碳水化合物、蛋白質及脂肪),而比例的分配則是要視你運動的內容、強度及個人狀況而定。通常我們的飲食習慣都是固定,所以可能每天吃的東西都是一樣的。可以先安排每週的菜單,確保可以從食物中均衡攝取到所需的營養。

而運動後營養補充的時間點:

Here’s a timeline for your post-workout nutrition after a long (over 90-minute) or very hard workout.

Within about 30 minutes: Consume a recovery snack to give you the carbohydrates and sodium you need; drink to your thirst. Within about two hours: Enjoy a balanced meal; drink to your thirst. For the rest of the day: Continue drinking to your thirst and eating a variety of healthy foods.

簡譯在從事完90分鐘以上或是非常艱困的訓練後,在30分鐘內補充恢復能量的點心,提供身體所需要的碳水化合物及鈉,並且適時補充水份。大約2小時內,可以享受你的餐點,也別忘記補充水份。

什麼是「Recovery Snack(山姆伯伯暫譯:恢復能量包)」:

Your recovery snack should be a mixture of fluids, sodium, carbohydrates, possibly some protein, and not too much fat. Fat can interface with your body’s ability to process the carbohydrates – and the protein – in your recovery snack.

簡譯恢復能量包包含了水份、鈉、碳水化合物、可能有些蛋白質及少量的脂肪。脂肪會干擾身體處理能量包中的碳水化合物及蛋白質。

為什麼要恢復能量包這種東西呢?補充恢復能量包的主要的目的是「恢復的更快」,當你早上訓練完之後,下午又要進行訓練;或者是今天進行了長跑或是辛苦的訓練,肝醣(Glycogen)消耗殆盡,為了讓身體加速恢復而補戰下一個訓練,這時候能量包就會派上用場,除了運動後補充,在每個正餐間的空檔也進行補充。

而不曉得大家有沒有聽過「肝醣之窗(Glycogen Window)」,也就是運動結束後的30分鐘內,補充肝醣可以獲得到最大的效果,書中第82頁有說到:

The carbohydrates you consume in the first 30 minutes after exercise will lead to higher glycogen levels than if you wait for two hours after the workout to begin eating again (Ivy et al. 1998). For this reason, we often hear about a “glycogen window," in which we have to take in our recovery snack for maximum benefits.  And while that ‘s true, it’s not as hard and fast as some would make it seem.

The window doesn’t slam shut at 30 minutes postexercise. You have two hours after your workout when you can take in that recovery snack. But you’ ll still be replenishing glycogen depleted during a morning workout when you eat your lunch, your afternoon snack, and your dinner.

In fact, if you’re more depleted, you ‘ll still be replenishing your glycogen stores the next day. Don’t get too hung up on the 30-minute rule, but do remember to pay attention to your recovery snack after longer or intense workout when you need to recover quickly.

簡譯在1998年Ivy的研究結果,補充碳水化合物的時段,在運動後結束的30分鐘內比起2小時後才進食,肌肉肝醣合成(Glycogen Synthesis)會更為迅速。基於這個原因,我們經常會聽到肝醣之窗(Glycogen Window),我們在30分鐘的時間內補充恢復能量包可以得到最大的效益。這確實是真得,但30分時間到時,這扇窗並不會立即關上,這扇窗開啟有2小時的時間,這段時間你一樣可以攝取恢復能量包。

肝醣之窗關閉了,並不表示肝醣的補充工作就結束了。在進行正餐時,身體仍然在補充肝醣。若你訓練的時間長或強度很高,肝醣消耗相當嚴重時,身體進行肝醣補充的工作可能需要更長,適時的補充所需的營養,可以加快身體恢復的速度。

山姆伯伯有查到一篇Journal of Sports Medicine的[文章PDF]也有談到上面的議題,直接將結論抓出來:

The restoration of muscle glycogen after depletion by exercise is a central component of the recovery process. To maximize the rate of muscle glycogen storage during short-term recovery, it is important to consume a carbohydrate supplement as soon after exercise as possible. If consuming only carbohydrate, supplementation should occur frequently, such as every 30 minutes, and provide about 1.2 to 1.5 g of carbohydrate / kg body weight / hr.

簡譯在運動後,肌肉肝醣的補充是恢復程序很重要的要素。為了讓肌肉肝醣合成的速率達到最大值,在運動結束後愈早補充碳水化合物愈好。若只補充碳水化合物的話,應該經常的進行補充,像是每30分鐘,並且以每小時每公斤體重補充1.2至1.5公克的碳水化合物。

However, the efficiency of muscle glycogen storage can be increased significantly with the addition of protein to a carbohydrate supplement. This will reduce both the amount of carbohydrate and frequency of supplementation required to maximize glycogen storage.

簡譯若在碳水化合物的補充時加上蛋白質,肌肉肝醣合成的效率會有明顯的提升,並且減少碳水化合物補充的量及頻率。

If both carbohydrate and protein are consumed, it is recommended that 0.8 g carbohydrate·kg body wt plus 0.2 g protein·kg -1 body wt be consumed immediately and 2-hours after exercise during a 4-hour recovery period. The addition of protein to a carbohydrate supplement also has the added advantage of limiting post exercise muscle damage and promoting muscle protein accretion.

簡譯若同時補充碳水化合物及蛋白質時,建議每公斤體重補充[0.8公克的碳水化合物 + 0.2公克的蛋白質]。在運動結束後馬上補充1次,經過2小時之後,每4小時補次一次,而加上蛋白質的優點也能限制肌肉的損壞並且幫助肌肉蛋白的合成。

Along with a rapid increase in muscle glycogen, these processes can have a significant impact on subsequent exercise performance.

簡譯隨著肌肉肝醣迅速的增加,這些過程將會在之後運動的表現上造成明顯的效果。

而Recovery Snack(恢復能量包)到底有什麼可以選呢?書上第86頁有列出一些組合,其中一個大家已經知道的「巧克力牛奶」:

■ Chocolate milk (巧克力牛奶)
■ Chocolate soymile (巧克力豆漿)
■ Bagel with jam, cream cheese, peanut butter, or a slice of turkey (貝果加果醬、奶油乳酪、花生醬或一片火雞肉)
■ Smoothie (fruit and/or vegetables belended with cow’s milk; soy, almond, or rice milk; or yogurt)
■ Fruit and yogurt (新鮮水果與優格)
■ Cereal with cow’s milk or soy, almond, or rick milk 
■ Fresh juice and a handful of nuts  (新鮮果汁及一把堅果)

上面介紹完之後,回到主題「蛋白質」要補充多少呢?在倒回來看書第85頁怎麼說:

Protein 

While some studies have shown that protein aids in glycogen uptake, others have not supported this finding. Ryan says that the importance of protein in the recovery meal is overrated because protein doesn’t facilitate muscle glycogen recovery after endurance training. Instead, protein helps muscle build after a resistance workout. “You can add in some protein if it’s the kind of workout that could have caused some muscle breakdown," she say, “but you don’t want the protein to crowd out the carbohydrate."

簡譯對於耐力訓練(Endurance Training)來說,蛋白質在恢復中所扮演的角色被高估了,因為蛋白質不會促進肌肉肝醣的恢復。而阻力訓練(Resistance Workout)的話,蛋白質有助於肌肉的建構。

A recent study (Rowlands and Wadsworth 2011) found that female cyclists responded very differently than male cyclists when they ingested a recovery snake containing protein.

Men responded better to more protein in their recovery drink, but some women reported feeling more tired and sore when their recovery meal included a larger proportion of protein. You must find the amounts that work best for you individually.

簡譯Recovery Snack中的蛋白質比例要注意,男性自行車選手及女性自行車選手吸收反應不同,在Recovery飲品中將蛋白質比例增高,男性的反應佳,但有些女士感覺更加疲累而且痠痛。因此必須找出每個人適合的蛋白質比例。

在Journal of Sports Medicine說到,蛋白質有助於肌肉肝醣合成的效率的提升,但在書上的最後說到蛋白質不會促進肌肉肝醣的恢復。山姆伯伯認為,並不是蛋白質不重要,而是在耐力訓練中,蛋白質的需求並不用來的這麼高。以Journal of Sports Medicine文章最後的結論,碳水化合物與蛋白質的比例為「4:1」,但若你訓練的型態屬於阻力訓練時,蛋白質的比例就需要增加。

山姆伯伯知道有人跑完長跑之後,飲用一份乳清蛋白就結束營養的補充。來看看這個情況,長跑訓練應該是屬於進行耐力訓練,理論上不應該飲用一份乳清蛋白就收工結束,舉Optimum牌子的乳清蛋白:

Optimum Nutrition Performance Whey 每份含量
熱量 160大卡  / 蛋白質 22 公克  / 脂肪 4 公克 / 飽和脂肪 2.5 公克 / 反式脂肪 0 公克 / 碳水化合物 9 公克 / 鈉 140 毫克

蛋白質是22公克,碳水化合物是9公克,以耐力訓練來說,碳水化合物明顯的不足,而且蛋白質比例偏高。

運動的營養補充,山姆伯伯不是專家,只是有興趣研究研究,但希望以上的整理,大家可以從中知道觀念,並且親自試試看囉。

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