跑步時Supinator與Overpronators的原因與改善方式

Foot Types

上圖中都是右腳,而在跑步時,你是屬於哪一種腳型呢?在《Anatomy for Runners》的書中談到「Supinator」與「Overpronator」二種狀況在跑步中足部的運作是什麼與原因,選擇一雙好鞋並不會改善這狀況的發生,而是訓練足部的靈活性與穩定肌群,增加對足部的控制能力。

若你是屬於【Supinator】

If you have been called a supinator, you stay more towards the outside of the foot and have trouble getting your foot down to the ground. Stiff feet aren’t the best shock absorbers and stay more rigid throughout stance.

In fact, we see higher rates of stress fractures in the shins of these runners since they can’t take advance of the leaf spring that is built into their mobile arch.

(從上面的圖形知道,Supinator足部在著地時,足外側的負擔較大,而此僵硬的足部不是最佳的減震器,使得身體要直接迎接每一步所帶來的衝擊。而事實上,這些跑者脛骨發生壓力性骨折的機率較高,因為他們不會善用內建在足弓中的鋼板彈簧。)

改善的方式:

Grab a LAX ball and roll away on the underside of your foot under full body weight. You aren’t doing this for a massage, but to create some movement for shock dissipation within the foot. Another tip that helps these folks it to focus on lading softer.

(在腳底下放置一顆球,不是要利用這顆球來按摩球底,而是產生一些讓足弓可以分散衝擊力的動作。另一個建議是,學習足部在著地時可以更柔和一點。)

若你是屬於【Overpronators】

There people literally think they are doomed, but there is nothing to be scared of folks! Sure, runners with increased mobility have been shown to have more incidence of shin splints, Achilles tendinopathy, and stress fractures in the tibia and metatarsals.

(不用過度擔心,雖然研究顯示,這類靈活度高的跑者會提高以下發生的機會:小腿脛痛(Shin Splints)、阿基里斯腱病變(Achilles tendinopathy)的症狀,脛骨(Tibia)與蹠骨(Metatarsal)壓力性骨折。)

But it’s not because they move too much. This is why the term overpronation is just not accurate. Mobile feet have problem because the muscles controlling the twisting of the rearfoot on the forefoot are behind the ball.

(但因為並不是在於他們活動的太多,這就是為什麼"overpronation"單字無法精準的表達意思。靈活的足部會有問題,因為位在前腳掌上肌肉在控制後腳掌扭轉的時間點落在前腳掌橫弓之後。)

They do activate, but too late to control the twisting of the rearfoot on the forefoot. Muscles inside the foot have to activate and establish a foundation before the bigger muscles can fire. Deja vu? Does this sound like the core example mentioned in the last chapter? Yes. High forces through unstable levers lead to breakdown.

(前腳掌控制後腳掌扭轉的時間太晚上,位在足部內的肌肉必須被徵加而且建立一個基礎,但要早在更大的肌肉被激發前。)

有看過「核心控制與穩定肌群的重要性」這一篇應該知道「時序(Timing)」是非常重要的,而且在沒有穩定能力為前提下,進行對身體有高衝擊的運動,發生受傷的狀況是可以預期的。

而解決的方式呢?

And it’s not just about the foot. Ever hear the song “The Hip-Bone-Connected-to-the-Leg-Bone"? The body function as an interconnected kinematic chain – all the parts influence motion at other parts. The entire lower body moves inward and outward as the foot pronates and supinates.

The take-home part here is that things like weak hip stabilizers can actually create excessive motion at the foot. And poor foot control can likewise provide an unstable platform for muscles above them.

(這個問題不止跟足部有關,可能跟你的髖關節也有關係。因為身體是一個動力鏈的關係,每個部位會互相影響其它者。因此,無力的髖關節穩定肌群會導致足部過多的活動,而不佳的足部控制,提供上層肌肉一個不穩定的平台。)

鞋子沒辨法改善足部運作的狀態,也沒辨法改善你肌肉控制的時序,這是你的工作。而你可以藉由「Toe Yoga」與「單腳蹲(Single-Leg Squat)」的測試來了解你那個環節出了問題。

圖片來源:How to Choose Running Shoes

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