針對跑者的非捲腹式核心訓練

在 NSCA 出版的「Developing Endurance」書中第137頁提到:「若耐力運動員減少耐力訓練量而外加阻力訓練,阻力訓練對於耐力表現是提供正面的效果。有整合阻力訓練的耐力運動員,比起傳統只進行耐力訓練的人來說,在表現的水平會更好。」因此,若你想要維持健康不受傷,並且更上一層樓,適時的加入全身性、核心及髖關節為主的動作是必要的。

在 Competitor 網站上有一篇文章「The Crunchless Core Workout For Runners (針對跑者的非捲腹核心訓練)」,在看文章之前,山姆先補充一下,除了不建議做仰臥起坐之外,也愈來愈多人支持不要做「捲腹(Crunch)」,而選擇透過「抵抗動作發生」的方式來進行核心訓練。文章一開始是先提供一些科學的研究,原文可以自行閱讀:

A prospective study in Clinical Biomechanics (Noehren et al., 2007) looked at lower extremity kinematics and kinetics in groups of novice female runners who either did or did not develop iliotibial band syndrome. Based on their findings, the authors suggest that “interventions should be aimed at improving the strength and neuromuscular control of the hip” as those who developed iliotibial band syndrome showed compromised hip and knee kinematics when running. However, a systematic review in the Sports Medicine journal (van der Worp et al., 2012) point out that other factors may be at play, such as muscle compliance, footwear type and running surface. Regardless, the consensus states that hip strengthening should play an important role in ITBS prevention and rehabilitation.

Research in the Journal of Clinical Biomechanics (Snyder et al., 2007) found closed chain (standing) hip strengthening exercises not only increase hip strength in novice female runners, but also alter lower extremity joint loading when running. The authors postulate these results may reduce injury risk and improve a runner’s durability. In addition, Fredericson and Moore (2005) report that “weakness or lack of sufficient coordination in core musculature can lead to less efficient movements, compensatory movement patterns, strain, overuse and injury,” thus, further driving the importance of strength training sessions in a runner’s weekly routine.

Most times though, just reading the research abstract doesn’t paint you the complete picture regarding the scientific findings. For example, a recent study from the Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport (Koblbauer et al., 2013) examined running kinematics during fatigued running in novice runners and found that “core endurance measures displayed unexpected relations with running kinematics,” meaning that those who displayed better core endurance performance exhibited larger trunk kinematic changes when running in a fatigued state. However, the authors point out that the static core endurance tests may not completely reflect the dynamic core stability function of the trunk while running and further state that further research is needed to determine the relationship between isometric core endurance measures and running kinematics.

A recent study from the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research (Gottschall et al., 2013) examined the difference between isolation-type core exercises, like crunches, and compared them to integration-type core exercises that incorporated distal trunk muscle activation, like the pushup plank with alternating knees (listed below as a recommended exercise). The researchers found greater core muscle activation during the integration-type exercises and concluded “an integrated routine that incorporates the activation of distal trunk musculature would be optimal in terms of maximizing strength, improving endurance, enhancing stability, reducing injury, and maintaining mobility.

無論如何,在跑步過程中,維持穩定軀幹及骨盆的能力是非常重要的,可以將不必要的動作及減到最低。這些「額外」動作或是代償動作將導致能量浪費與競賽表現降低,更糟的是,可能過度使用而受傷。接著,介紹以下五個動作來改善核心及骨盆的穩定度,同時提供整體的肌力:

【Dead Bug For Runners】

改善核心穩定度。保持下背貼於地面,手腳就像是在進行跑步。進行3組,每組60秒。

【Pushup Plank With Alternating Knees】

改善核心穩定度。進行3組,每組進行60秒。

【Glute Bridge With Marching】

改善髖關節肌力並增加骨盆及腰椎的穩定度。。進行3組,每組進行60秒。

【Offset Reverse Lunge】

增加下肢肌力,並且改善平衡及協調性,同時提升骨盆及核心的穩定度。每邊進行8~12次,總共進行2~3組。

【Staggered Stance Offset Romanian Deadlift】

增加下肢肌力,並且改善平衡及協調性,同時提升骨盆及核心的穩定度。每邊進行8~12次,總共進行2~3組。

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