[開始槓鈴訓練] 暖身組(Warm-Up Sets)

在「跑步的暖身觀念」文章中有談到二個暖身重要的目的,而在「Starting Strength」第八章的「WARM-UP SETS」也有談到關於槓鈴的訓練前,暖身的目的,而且強調它十分的重要:「若沒有時間安排適當的暖身,就不要進行訓練。」最後也談到了,暖身組的重量選擇與次數,一起來看一看。

" If your schedule does not allow time for proper warm-up, it does not allow time for training at all. “

再來複習一下暖身的二個主要目的:

First, warm-ups actually make the soft tissue – the muscles and tendons, and the ligaments that comprise the joints – warmer.

(首先是暖活組軟組織,像是肌肉、肌腱與韌帶。)

General warm-up exercise increase the temperature in the soft tissue and mobilize the synovial fluid in the joints. These exercises include walking fast or jogging, riding an exercise bike ( a better method), or using a rowing machine (the best method, due to its range of motion and the full involvement of the back and arms as well as the legs.)

(利用一般性的暖身運動來增加軟組織的溫度及並增加關節中滑膜液(Synovial Fluid)的流動。暖身的動作像是快走、慢跑或是原地腳踏車或是划船機(Rowing Machines)。原地腳踏車是一個不錯的選擇,因為進行時提供膝蓋更大活動範圍的參與,對於深蹲訓練的準備是相當好的暖身。然而,划船機是最好的選擇,因為它在進行時,提供給背部、手肘與腿部全活動範圍的參與。)

Specific warm-ups, like the empty-bar sets of the barbell exercise itself, also serve to warm, mobilize, and stretch the specific tissue involved in the particular movement. This step is important for injury prevention, since it is more difficult to injure a warm body than a cold one.

(針對性的暖身動作,像是以空槓來進行訓練動作,針對所要利用的軟組織其行暖身、活動與伸展。這個動作對於防止受傷來說非常重要,因為溫度的身體比起冰冷的身體更難受傷。)

軟組織溫度的提高非常的重要,隨著你在室內/室外、夏天/冬天、年紀、受傷等狀況而所調整與注意。在空調/冷氣房、冬天、在癒合的受傷下、年紀大等,需要花更長的時間來進行暖身準備。

針對性的暖身動作(Specific warm-ups)對於槓鈴訓練尤其重要:

It allows you to practice  the movement before the weight gets heavy. Light warm-up sets, done first with the empty bar and then progressively heavier until the work sets are loaded, prepare the movement pattern itself so that when the weight gets heavy, you can focus your attention on pushing hard instead of worrying about how to push.

(它予許你在進行更高重量前,先練習動作的技巧。先從空槓暖身,然後慢慢增加重量,直到你要訓練的重量。當你準備好動作模式之後,在進行更高重量時,你可以更注意於推,而不用顧慮到如何推。)

The motor pathway – the neuromuscular adaptation to a complicated movement pattern – must be prepared every time it is used, whether you’re throwing a baseball or doing a squat. The more familiar the movement pattern, the less critical this aspect of warm-up becomes, but for a novice it is always very important. The warm-up sets prepare the motor pathway at the same time that they prepare the tissues for the upcoming heavier work.

(「運動神經路徑(Motor Pathway) -對於複雜動作模式的 神經肌肉適應」一定要在每一次的使用時預備好,不管是丟棒球或是進行深蹲。對動作模式愈熟悉,暖身會變得愈不關鍵。但對於初學者來說,暖身始終是非常重要的。暖身組在準備軟組織負荷更高的重量,同時也在為運動神經路徑作準備。)

While you are doing the first sets, you can address and fix form errors so that during your work sets, you can focus more on driving the load and less on maintaining correct form.

(在你進行暖身組時,你可以調整並且修正有誤的姿勢,而當你進到訓練時,你能更專注在重量上,而減少維持正確姿勢的心思。)

暖身,非常重要,請記住一個忠告:

If your schedule does not allow time for proper warm-up, it does not allow time for training at all.

(若你沒有時間安排進行暖身,代表時間不予許你進行訓練)。

較好的方式是從訓練的菜單中,忽略肌力訓練這個項目,以避免無可挽回的受傷發生。而暖身組要進行幾組呢?

It should be carefully and thoroughly prepared with a couple of empty-bar sets, and then as many as five sets between those and the work sets.

(應該仔細與徹底的準備一組空槓,然後在和訓練組(Work Sets)之間進行多達5組的暖身。)

什麼是「訓練組(Work Sets)」跟「暖身組(Warm-up Sets)」有什麼差別呢?

A work set is the heaviest weight to be done in a given workout, the sets that actually produce the stress which causes the adaptation. Warm-ups are the lighter sets done before the work sets. 

(訓練組是你要進行訓練中最重的重量,這個組數實際上帶給你成長調適的壓力。而暖身組是在進行訓練組前較輕的組數。)

The work sets are the ones that provide the training effect; they are the sets that make strength go up, since they are the heaviest – for novices, the weight you haven’t done before.

(訓練組提供訓練的效果,讓你肌力獲得成長,而對於初學者來說,這個重量是你之前從未做過的。)

以下有一個範例,一般來說,會以空槓開始進行(45磅/20公斤),然後依訓練組目標重量來調整暖身組各階段重量,漸進式的增加重量。暖身組的最後一組不會選擇與訓練操的重量太接近,因為這會影響到訓練組的操作,至於要設定多少呢?依照每個人的喜好、技巧與經驗而定囉。

書中談到一個老式的訓練方式「金字塔型(The Pyramid)」,以臥推來說,訓練內容會是:

135 x 10, 155 x 8, 175 x 6, 185 x 5, 195 x4, 205 x 3, 215 x 2, and 225 x 1

當你做完全部的組數之後,也許你會覺得相當的棒。但問題是你在進行225磅的重量之前,你已經進行了6390磅的重量,還剩下多少力量來進行225磅的訓練呢?「暖身組」進行的太多,讓你感到疲勞,而不是為訓練組進行準備,肌力也因此不會獲得進步。

從空槓到較重的重量進行暖身的過程,組與組之間的休息會增加。一般來說,時間是足夠你從上一組的訓練中得到恢復,讓上一組所產生的疲勞不影響到現在這一組的進行。我們的訓練內容是要你完成每個組數的次數,能在每個訓練中挺舉更高的重量,而不是跟「時間」競賽。

A Strength training program is designed to make you stronger, i.e., able to exert more force and lift more weight. Some training programs used in bodybuilding rely on the accumulated fatigue produced by short breaks between sets, and these programs specially increase muscular endurance. Although endurance increases as a function of strength, it is not a parameter specially targeted by out program at the novice level.

(肌力訓練菜單的設計是要你變的更強壯,能夠輸出更大的力量、舉起更重的重量。一些健美選手會依賴在組數間的短時間所累積的疲勞感來增加其肌耐力。雖然耐力也會增加肌力的功能,但這不是我們針對初學者設計菜單時所考量的。)

You will benefit more by lifting heavier weights through the efficient timing of sets to allow for recovery, than by trying to decrease the time between the sets and thereby allowing fatigue to limit your ability to exert maximum force.

(藉由組數間有足夠而有效的恢復時間,你會從舉起更重的重量中獲得成長。)

休息的時間依照你的體能狀況、技術、重量等而有所不同。以初學者來說,因為重量不足以讓他們產生過大的疲勞感,休息時間可能1~2分鐘,以進階的訓練者可能需要更長的時間。

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