在進行瑜珈勇式的動作時,膝蓋是否內傾了嗎?

在上瑜珈課時,在進行勇式(Warrior Pose)的動作時,老師應該會特別提醒,膝蓋記得對準第二根腳趾頭(上圖左),對嗎?這時候你對著鏡子開始調膝蓋。而你有認真注意過,你的膝蓋是內傾(上圖右)還是外傾(上圖左)呢?而這又代表什麼原因呢?花個時間來看看Yoga Journal的介紹囉。

2005年12月的Yoga Journal

Few poses beat Warrior Pose Ⅱ at strengthening your hips and thighs. As you might guess from the way your legs burn in a long Warrior Ⅱ, the pose strongly works your quadriceps muscle, which make up the front of your thighs. But Warrior Ⅱ is not just about strength: It can also correct a common misalignment that can lead to many knee problems.

(勇式二強化你的髖關節及大腿,而當你進行長時間的勇式Ⅱ動作時,也許會感覺到腿部在燃燒,這個姿勢強烈的訓練你大腿前側的肌肉。勇式二不僅可以鍛鍊你的肌力,同時也可以修正一種常見導致許多膝蓋問題的的偏位狀況。)

To see if you have this misalignment, stand barelegged in front of a mirror. If your alignment is healthy, your kneecaps will point straight out over the middle of your feet. But you may find that your thighbone rotates inward in relation to your shinbone and that your kneecap points slightly inward, too. This position is bad news: It torques your knee, putting uneven pressure on the cartilage and straining the supporting ligaments and tendons every time your bend it.

(為了了解你是否有偏位的問題,赤腳站在鏡子面前。若膝蓋對齊是健康的,你的膝蓋骨會指向直向腳掌的中間。但你也許會發現,你的大腿骨相對於小腿骨是往內旋轉的,而你的膝蓋骨也微微的往內。若是如此,這真是一個壞消息呀!每當膝蓋彎曲時,這會帶給軟骨不平均的壓力,而且過度拉緊支撐的韌帶與肌腱。)

■ ALIGNMENT FIRST (先解決偏位問題:放鬆髖內收肌群!)

Whenever you hear a yoga teacher say, “As you bend your knee, point your kneecap directly toward your middle toe," she’s reminding you to stabilize your thighbone and knee in healthy alignment. But that’s often easier said than done. Even if your alignment is fine when you’re standing with straight legs, you may collapse your front knee inward when you come into Warrior  Ⅱ

(每當你聽到瑜珈老師說"彎曲你的膝蓋,將膝蓋骨直接指向腳趾的中間",她正在指醒將大腿骨及膝骨穩定在一個健康的位置。但說比做的容易!即使當你雙腿站直時,對齊是好的;但當你進行勇式二時,你也許又會將前腳膝蓋往內傾了。)

To correct this misalignment, you need to focus on two actions in Warrior  Ⅱ. The first is stretching your hip adductors. This large muscle group, which fills your inner thighs and pulls your knees toward each other, includes the pectineus, adductor brevis, adductor longus, adductor magnus, and gracilis.

(為了修正這偏位的狀況,你需要將焦點放在二件事情上。第一件事情是背躺在地上進行伸展髖內收肌群,這是一大群的肌肉,將膝蓋拉向對方的原因。第二件事情是延續著第一個動作,背躺地的狀況下,腳靠在牆上做出勇式二的動作。)

Practice this pose lying on your back: Lie perpendicular to a wall, with your feet on the wall and your knees and hip each bent to 90 degrees, as tough you were sitting on a chair that had tipped over backward.Then open your knees to the sides and move your feet farther apart so your shines remain perpendicular to the wall and parallel to the floor. Stay in this position for four or five breathes and allow your inner thighs to relax and stretch.

( 第一動作:躺在地上,與牆面垂直,腳踩在牆面上,膝蓋與髖關節彎曲呈現90度,想像你做在椅子上,往後倒在地上的樣子。山姆伯伯有找了一個圖示進行改造一下如下。)

( 然後慢慢的膝蓋連同大腿骨、小腿骨往外打開(二腳掌的距離會愈來愈遠),然後小腿骨同樣的與牆面呈垂直、與地面呈水平。維持這個姿勢4~5個呼吸,讓大腿內側進行放鬆與伸展。)

(山姆伯伯有找了圖示,下肢的動作應該如圖示。)

Next, still lying on your back, create the shape of Warrior Ⅱ: Leaving your right foot where it is, straighten your left leg out to the side, turning your foot in slightly as you ground your sole on the wall. Place your left foot so that a line drawn between its arch and your right heel would be parallel to the floor. Stretch your arms out to the sides at shoulder height, and – voila! Warrior Ⅱ. Stay for a minute or two, and then repeat to other side.

(第二動作,延續第一個動作,做出勇式二的動作。右腳留在原本的位置,將左腳往外伸直,並且將左腳微往內轉,腳掌一樣踩在牆面。調整你的左腳,使得它的足拱及右腳的腳跟跟地面可以呈一條水平的直線。然後將雙手打開,放置在肩膀的二側。勇式二姿勢成形!保持1~2分鐘,然後換邊。)

■ UP AGAINST THE WALL(強化負責大腿外旋的肌群)

The other secret to proper alignment of the bent leg is Warrior Ⅱ is engaging and strengthening the muscles that externally rotate you thigh. The main external rotators are the glutes maximus and the six deep rotators that lie underneath it – the piriformis, obturator internus, obturator externus, gemellus superior, gemellus inferior, and quadratus femoris.

(在進行勇式二的動作,在膝彎時要達到比較適當的對齊,沒有其它的秘密,就是訓練負責大腿外旋的肌群。主要的外旋肌群是臀大肌及在它之下的六個的旋轉肌。訓練的動作可以先想像一下,身體靠近牆面做勇式二,然後前彎腳跟牆面中間放個東西,為了不讓東西掉下來,所以前彎腳要頂尖東西,這時候就會訓練到外旋的肌群。)

To get in touch with and build these muscles, stand with your back near the wall and your feet 4 to 4.5 feet apart. Turn your left foot in slightly and your right foot out 90 degrees, parallel to the wall, and set yourself up so your right hip is touching the wall. (Don’t fore your left hip to the wall, or you’ll force your right knee out of alignment.。Watch your thigh and knee as you bend your right leg into Warrior Ⅱ。

(站直,然後背靠近牆面,雙腳的距離如同勇式二雙腳的距離,將左腳微往內轉,右腳往外轉90度,平行與牆面,這時候你的腳邊髖關節應該會碰觸到牆面(不要強迫讓左邊的髖關節碰到牆面,否則你膝會偏位。彎曲你的右腳,所以身體呈現勇式二的下肢動作。)

Make sure your right thigh is parallel to the wall and your right knee points out over the center of your right foot. Next, place a tightly rolled yoga mat between the wall and your bent knee. Pressing your knee firmly into the prop, press through your left foot, keeping your left knee straight and your left thighbone pushing back toward the wall.

(確定你右邊大腿是平行與牆面、右膝是直向右足的中間。接下來,捲緊你的瑜珈墊,放在牆面與右腿之間,你的右腳要出力將瑜珈墊停留在牆面上,同時,也別忘記勇式二後腳的動作,左膝打直,大腿骨往牆面方向後推。)

以現代久坐的生活方式,坐的時間愈長,髖內收的肌群就愈緊。文章先介紹放鬆髖內收肌群,然後再加強髖外旋的肌群,有興趣的朋友,可以嘗試看看囉。若上面文章有什麼錯誤的地方,也歡迎大家提出來囉。最後附上勇式二的動作示範。

圖片來源:Yoga Therapy for Your KneesAbout.comHealth.com

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